Using semi-coke as a reducing agent in the production of ferroalloys

Document Type : Review article


1 semnan university

2 Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Semnan University



Ferroalloys are compounds of iron with other elements that have many applications in various industries. The production of ferroalloys is usually done in electric arc furnaces and by the carbothermic process. In this method, metal oxides are reduced by different carbon materials, and the type of carbon material used can affect the way the process is carried out and the quality of the product. Metallurgical coke is the most common reducing agent in the production of ferroalloys, but due to its increasing shortage, high price, and relatively high content of harmful impurities, manufacturers are looking for other options. Charcoal has less ash than other carbon materials, but due to environmental problems, its use is not common. Coal with the highest reactivity is not considered among the main options due to its high sulfur content and low compressive strength. Recently, semi-coke, which is prepared at a lower temperature than coke, has gained attention in the ferroalloys industry due to its unique characteristics (high fixed carbon, high specific resistance, high chemical activity, low ash, and low sulfur). Semi-coke improves the quality of ferroalloy and reduces energy consumption and production costs. So far, semi-coke has been used in the process of iron and ferroalloy production in a limited way, and their results show the advantages of the presence of semi-coke. Therefore, in this research, the carbon materials used in the production of ferroalloys, the advantages of semi-coke, and the production method of semi-coke are discussed.


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