Effect of tempering heat treatment on mechanical properties of a medium silicon low alloy ferrite–martensite DP steel

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Yazd University, University Blvd, Safayieh, Yazd, PO Box: 98195 – 741, Iran

2 Materials Science and Engineering, Yazd University

3 Professor Department of Materials Engineering Faculty of Engineering



This paper has been concerned to investigate in details the effect of tempering heat treatment on mechanical properties of 35CHGSA heat treatable low alloy steel under ferrite–martensite dual-phase (DP) microstructures. For this aim, two sets of ferrite–martensite DP samples containing 6% volume fraction of ferrite have been developed using step-quench heat treatment processes at 720°C for 5 min holding times with the subsequent water quenching after being austenitized at 900°C for 15 min. In comparison to first set of fresh ferrite–martensite DP samples (marked FDP), the finalized tempering heat treatment has been carried out at 500°C for 60 min only for the second set of tempered ferrite–martensite DP (marked TDP) samples in order to optimize the strength–ductility combination. Light and electron microscopes have been used in conjunction with hardness and tensile tests to assess the structure–property relationships of FDP and TDP heat-treated samples. The experimental results demonstrate that the mechanical properties of FDP heat-treated samples are significantly increased after tempering heat treatment. The product of tensile strength multiple total elongation has been significantly increased from 2.4 (FDP) to 15.8% GPa (TDP). Moreover, the absorbed impact energy is sharply increased from 3.5 to 12 J cm-2 corresponding to the FDP and TDP marked samples, respectively. These results are rationalized to the fact that the tempering heat treatment modifies the individual mechanical behavior of ferrite and martensite microphases through influencing the ferrite and martensite hardening variations.


Main Subjects

  1. [1] T. Baudin, C. Quesne, J. Jura, R. Penelle, Microstruc-

    tural characterization in a hot-rolled, two-phase steel, Materials characterization. 47 (2001) 365-373. https:// doi.org/10.1016/S1044-5803(02)00183-3.

    [2] E. Ahmad, T. Manzoor, K.L. Ali, J. Akhter, Ef-

    fect of microvoid formation on the tensile properties

    of dual-phase steel, Journal of materials engineer-

    ing and performance. 9 (2000) 306-310. https://doi.


    [3] E. Ahmad, R. Priestner, Effect of rolling in the

    intercritical region on the tensile properties of du-

    al-phase steel, Journal of materials engineering

    and performance. 7 (1998) 772-776. https://doi.


    [4] H.R.K. Zarchi, A. Khajesarvi, S.S.G. Banadkouki,

    M.C. Somani, Microstructural evolution and carbon par-

    titioning in interstitial free weld simulated APIX60 steel,

    Reviews on Advanced Materials Science. 58 (2019) 206-

    1. https://doi.org/10.1515/rams-2019-0016.

    [5] S.G. Banadkouki, E. Fereiduni, Effect of prior austen-

    ite carbon partitioning on martensite hardening variation

    in a low alloy ferrite–martensite dual phase steel, Mate-

    rials Science and Engineering: A. 619 (2014) 129-136.


    [6] O. Abedini, M. Behroozi, P. Marashi, E. Ranjbar-

    nodeh, M. Pouranvari, Intercritical Heat Treatment

    Temperature Dependence of Mechanical Properties and

    Corrosion Resistance of Dual Phase Steel, Materials Re-

    search. 22 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-5373-


    [7] M. Alipour, M.A. Torabi, M. Sareban, H. Lashini,

    1. Sadeghi, A. Fazaeli, M. Habibi, R. Hashemi, Finite

    element and experimental method for analyzing the ef-

    fects of martensite morphologies on the formability of

    DP steels, Mechanics Based Design of Structures and

    Machines. (2019) 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/153977


    [8] B. Sunil, S. Rajanna, Evaluation of mechanical prop-

    erties of ferrite-martensite DP steels produced through

    intermediate quenching technique, SN Applied Sciences.

    2 (2020) 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-020-03246-4.

    [9] P. Huyghe, L. Malet, M. Caruso, C. Georges, S. Godet,

    On the relationship between the multiphase microstruc-

    ture and the mechanical properties of a 0.2 C quenched

    and partitioned steel, Materials Science and Engineer-

    ing: A. 701 (2017) 254-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.


    [10] P. Movahed, S. Kolahgar, S. Marashi, M. Pouran-

    vari, N. Parvin, The effect of intercritical heat treatment

    temperature on the tensile properties and work hardening

    behavior of ferrite–martensite dual phase steel sheets,

    Materials Science and Engineering: A. 518 (2009) 1-6.


    [11] M. Rashid, B. Rao, Tempering characteristics of

    a vanadium containing dual phase steel, Metallurgi-

    cal transactions A. 13 (1982) 1679-1686. https://doi.


    [12] F. Samuel, Effect of dual-phase treatment and

    tempering on the microstructure and mechanical prop-

    erties of a high strength, low alloy steel, Materials Sci-

    ence and Engineering. 75 (1985) 51-66. https://doi.


    [13] X. Fang, Z. Fan, B. Ralph, P. Evans, R. Underhill,

    Effects of tempering temperature on tensile and hole ex-

    pansion properties of a C–Mn steel, Journal of materials

    processing technology. 132 (2003) 215-218. https://doi.


    [14] H. Li, S. Gao, Y. Tian, D. Terada, A. Shibata, N.

    Tsuji, Influence of tempering on mechanical properties of

    ferrite and martensite dual phase steel, Materials Today:

    Proceedings. 2 (2015) 667-671. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.


    [15] A.A. Sayed, S. Kheirandish, Affect of the tempering

    temperature on the microstructure and mechanical prop-

    erties of dual phase steels, Materials Science and Engi-

    neering: A. 532 (2012) 21-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.


    [16] A. Kamp, S. Celotto, D. Hanlon, Effects of tempering

    on the mechanical properties of high strength dual-phase

    steels, Materials Science and Engineering: A. 538 (2012)

    35-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2012.01.008.

    [17] M. Erdogan, R. Priestner, Effect of martensite

    content, its dispersion, and epitaxial ferrite content on

    Bauschinger behaviour of dual phase steel, Materials

    science and technology. 18 (2002) 369-376. https://doi.


    [18] A. Joarder, J. Ojha, D. Sarma, The tempering be-

    havior of a plain carbon dual-phase steel, Mater, Char-

    act. 25 (1990) 9-209. https://doi.org/10.1016/1044-


    [19] A. Norma, E3-01, Standard Guide for Preparation of

    metallographic specimens, American Society for Testing

    and Materials ASTM International, West Conshohocken,


    [20] P. Fazio, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Phil-

    adelphia, Pa.: American Society for Testing Materials,


    [21] A. Kardak, L. Bilich, G. Sinclair, Stress concentra-

    tion factors for ASTM E8/E8M-15a plate-type specimens

    for tension testing, Journal of Testing and Evaluation. 45

    (2017) 2294-2298.

    [22] A. Khajesarvi, S.G. Banadkouki, Investigation of

    carbon and silicon partitioning on ferrite hardening in a

    medium silicon low alloy ferrite-martensite dual-phase

    steel. 17 (2020), 25-33. https://dx.doi.org/10.22034/ijis-


    [23] E. Fereiduni, S.G. Banadkouki, Improvement of

    mechanical properties in a dual-phase ferrite–marten-

    site AISI4140 steel under tough-strong ferrite forma-

    tion, Materials & Design. 56 (2014) 232-240. https://doi.


    [24] M.S. Htun, S.T. Kyaw, K.T. Lwin, Effect of heat

    treatment on microstructures and mechanical properties

    of spring steel, Journal of metals, materials and minerals.

    18 (2008) 191-197.

    [25] D. Das, P.P. Chattopadhyay, Influence of martensite

    morphology on the work-hardening behavior of high

    strength ferrite–martensite dual-phase steel, Journal

    of materials science. 44 (2009) 2957-2965. https://doi.


    [26] A. Bag, K. Ray, E. Dwarakadasa, Influence of mar-

    tensite content and morphology on tensile and impact

    properties of high-martensite dual-phase steels, Metal-

    lurgical and Materials Transactions. A 30 (1999) 1193-

    1. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-999-0269-4.

    [27] A. Ebrahimian, S.G. Banadkouki, Effect of alloying

    element partitioning on ferrite hardening in a low alloy

    ferrite-martensite dual phase steel, Materials Science

    and Engineering: A. 677 (2016) 281-289. https://doi.


    [28] R. Davies, R. Kot, B. Bramfitt, Fundamentals of

    dual phase steels, Conference proceedings (Metallurgical

    society of AIME), 1981, pp. 265-277.

    [29] R.W.K. Honeycombe, Steels microstructure and

    properties, Metallurgy and materials science. 1 (1995).

    [30] A.S. Ghorabaei, S.G. Banadkouki, Abnormal Me-

    chanical Behavior of a Medium-Carbon Steel under

    Strong Ferrite-Pearlite-Martensite Triple-Phase Mi-

    crostructures, Materials Science and Engineering: A.

    (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2017.06.035.

    [31] Y. Liu, D. Fan, S.P. Bhat, A. Srivastava, Ductile frac-

    ture of dual-phase steel sheets under bending, Interna-

    tional Journal of Plasticity. 125 (2020) 80-96. https://doi.


    [32] F. Sorbello, P. Flewitt, G. Smith, A. Crocker, The

    role of deformation twins in brittle crack propagation in

    iron–silicon steel, Acta Materialia. 57 (2009) 2646-2656.


    [33] G.E. Dieter, D.J. Bacon, Mechanical metallurgy,

    McGraw-hill New York 1976.

    [34] H. Beladi, I. Timokhina, X.-Y. Xiong, P.D. Hodgson,

    A novel thermomechanical approach to produce a fine

    ferrite and low-temperature bainitic composite micro-

    structure, Acta materialia. 61 (2013) 7240-7250. https://