Preparation and Mechanical Properties of Nano/Ultrafine Bainitic Structure in AISI 52100 Steel

Document Type: Research Paper


Department of Material Engineering, Malek- Ashtar University of Technology (MUT), Shahin-Shahr, Isfahan, Iran


The development of nano/ultrafine bainitic structure in AISI 52100 steel was the goal of this study. For this purpose,
the AISI 52100 the specimens were austenitized at 1050 °C for 60 min followed by low-temperature austempering
treatment at different temperatures and times. The austempered samples were characterized using field emission
scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and tension test. According to achieved results,
the microstructure of AISI 52100 steel after the austempering treatment consisted of ultrafine bainitic ferrite plates
and retained austenite with two morphologies of micrometer-block and fine film. At the austempering temperature
up to 250 °C, the micrometer-blocky morphology of austenite completely vanished from the microstructure, and
the strength and ductility increased to about 2000 MPa and 7 %, respectively. By increasing the austempering
temperature to 300 °C, the strength and ductility reduced (to about 1808 MPa and 3 %) simultaneously as a result
of changing in the shape and size of bainite phase.


P.V. Krishna, R.R. Srikant: ISRN Tribolog., 11(2013), 1.
H. Burrier, ASM Handbook: Properties and Selection of Iron Steels and High Performance Alloys, ASM International, USA, (1987).
F.C. Akbasoglu, D.V. Edmonds: Metall. Trans. A., 21(1990), 889.
J. Beswick: Metall. Trans. A., 20(1989), 1961.
P. Olund, S. Larsson, T. Lund: ASM Proceedings: Heat Treating, ASM International, USA, (1998).
F.G. Caballero, H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, K.J.A. Mawalla, D.G. Jones, P. Brown: Mater. Sci. Technol.,18(2002), 279.
F.G. Caballero, H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia: Curr. OpinionSolid State Mater. Sci., 8(2004), 251.
C.G. Mateo, F.G. Caballero, H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia: ISIJ Int., 43(2003), 1821.
I.B. Timokhina, H. Beladi, X.Y. Xiong, Y. Adachi, P.D. Hodgson: Acta Mater., 59 (2011), 5511.
J. Chakraborty, D. Bhattacharjee, I. Manna: Scripta. Materialia., 59(2008), 247.
J. Zhao, T.S. Wang, B. Lv, F.C. Zhang: Mat. Sci. Eng., 23(2014), 325.
B.D. Cullity: Elements of X-ray Diffraction, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, London, (1956).
F.G. Caballero, H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, J.A. Mawella, D.G. Jones, P. Brown: Mat. Sci. Technol., 17(2001), 512.
A.M. Streicher-Clarkr, J.G. Speer, D.K. Matlock, D.L. Williamson, B.C. DeCooman: Metall. Mat. Trans. A., 36(2005), 907.
W.F. Smith: Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys, McGraw-Hill, USA, (1993).
H.A. Farzad, H.R. Faridi, F. Rajabpour, A. Abolhasani, Sh. Kazemi, Y. Khaledzadeh: Mat. Sci. Eng. A., 559(2013), 68.
A. Rezaee, A. Kermanpur, A. Najafizadeh, M. Moallemi: Mat. Sci. Eng. A., 528(2011), 5025.
H. Chandler, Heat Treaters Guide: Practices and Procedures for Irons and Steels, ASM International, USA, (1995).
H. Weber, W.J. Laird, ASM Metals Handbook: Martempering of Steel, ASM International, USA, (1991).
R. Songa, D. Ponge, D. Raabe, J.G. Speer, DK. Matlock: Mat. Sci. Eng. A., 441(2006), 1.
B. Avishan, S. Yazdani, S. Hossein-Nedjad: Mat. Sci. & Eng. A., 548(2012), 106.
D. Kalish, M. Cohen: Mat. Sci. Eng., 6(1970), 156.
D. Mandal, M. Ghosh, J. Pal, S.G. Chowdhury, G. Das, S.K. Das: Mat. Design., 54(2014), 831.
M. Peet, S.S. Babu, M.K. Miller, B.K.D.H. Bhadeshia: Scripta Mater., 50(2004), 1277.